Application of commonly used auxiliaries in textile dyeing and finishing

Application of commonly used auxiliaries in textile dyeing and finishing

  1. The fluorescent whitening agent VBL stilbene triazine type is an anionic direct dye. Its dyeing performance is basically similar to that of direct dyes. During use, use salt and Yuanming powder to promote dyeing, and use leveling agent to slow dyeing. It is a light yellow powder with a purple-blue hue. It is soluble in 80 times the amount of soft water. The water for dissolution should be slightly alkaline or medium. The dye bath should be medium or slightly alkaline with a pH value of 8-9. It is acid-resistant to PH value 6, alkali-resistant to PH value 11, hard-resistant to 300ppm, and not resistant to metal ions such as copper and iron. It can be mixed with anionic and nonionic surfactants, direct and acidic anionic dyes. However, it is not suitable to be used in the same bath with cationic dyes, cationic surfactants and synthetic resin primary shrinkage products. It is suitable for whitening white or light-colored cellulose products, and the dosage must be appropriate. Excessive amount will reduce the whiteness or even turn yellow. It is appropriate not to exceed 0.4% for cellulose fibers.
  2. Fluorescent whitening agent VBU stilbene triazine type, in the form of light yellow powder with a bluish-purple hue. It is soluble in water, anionic, acid-resistant to PH2–3, and alkali-resistant to PH10. It can be used in bath with anionic, nonionic surfactants, cationic dyes, synthetic resin primary shrinkage products, etc. However, it cannot be used in the same bath with cationic dyes and cationic additives. It is suitable for whitening cellulose fibers, resin finishing and whitening in the same bath with acidic components.
  3. Fluorescent whitening agent DT benzoxazole derivative is resistant to strong acids and alkalis. It is soluble in ethanol and has a blue-purple color. It is a neutral, non-ionic, dispersible yellow-white pulp emulsion that can be mixed with water in any proportion. Since polyvinyl alcohol is commonly used as a protective colloid in emulsion products and agglomerates with various salts, it is best to use it in a neutral or slightly acidic bath. The DT emulsion has been mixed with about 0.5% dispersant N, which will settle during storage. It should be stirred thoroughly when used to ensure the concentration. It can be used for bleaching polyester, nylon and other fibers and their blended fabrics. Only after high temperature treatment at 140-160 degrees for 2 minutes can the whitening effect be fully exerted.
  4. Fluorescent whitening agent WG yellow powder, with blue-green color tone, neutral aqueous solution, anionic surfactant, acid and hard water resistance, iron and copper have an impact on whiteness, and will only dissolve when used. The solution is not easy to store and is used for whitening wool and nylon.
  5. Fluorescent whitening agent BCD is a pyrazoline-based, light yellow powder with slightly purple fluorescence. It is insoluble in water and can be evenly dispersed in water to form a stable suspension. It is also soluble in ethanol, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol, ether, etc. Its 1% aqueous solution is nearly neutral and is used to whiten white acrylic and brighten light-colored fibers.

  1. Acids

 

  1. The molecular formula of sulfuric acid is H2SO4. It is a colorless or brown oily liquid. It is a strong oxidant and is extremely corrosive and water-absorbent. It releases a lot of heat when it comes into contact with water. When diluting, the acid must be added to the water, not the other way around. Used as dyeing auxiliary agent for acid dyes, acid mordant dyes, acid chromium dyes, wool carbonization agent, etc.
  2. The molecular formula of acetic acid is CH3COOH, abbreviated as HAC. It is a colorless, transparent and irritating smelly liquid with a freezing point of 14 degrees. It is corrosive and can burn the skin. It is used as an auxiliary agent for acid dyes in weak acid baths, acidic mordant dyes and neutral complex dyes.

3.The molecular formula of formic acid is HCOOH. It is a colorless, transparent, irritating and smelly liquid. It has a reducing effect and is highly corrosive. It easily freezes in cold weather. Formic acid vapor is flammable and toxic. Used as an auxiliary agent for acid dyes and acid mordant dyes.

  1. The molecular formula of oxalic acid is H2C2O4.2H2O, white crystal. It can decompose into white powder in dry air. It is highly acidic and toxic. It is easily decomposed and oxidized. It is slightly soluble in cold water and easily soluble in hot water, ethanol and ether. It can be used to remove rust stains.

3.Alkali

  1. The molecular formula of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) is NaOH. The solid content of sodium hydroxide is 95-99.5% and the liquid content is 30-45%. Solid sodium hydroxide is white and easily deliquescent. It releases high heat when dissolved in water and is extremely corrosive. It can break animal fibers and cause severe burns to the skin. It is easy to automatically absorb carbon dioxide from the air into sodium carbonate. The container should be sealed and used as a vat dye solvent and a cleaning agent for removing the clear color after body dyeing.
  2. The molecular formula of sodium carbonate (soda ash) is Na2CO3. Anhydrous sodium carbonate is in the form of dark-colored powder or fine granules. It absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide in the air, agglomerates and generates sodium bicarbonate, which is soluble in water. There are three types of hydrated sodium carbonate: one part water, seven parts water, and ten parts water. It is used as a wool detergent auxiliary, a dyeing auxiliary for direct dyes, sulfur dyes for cotton and viscose fiber, a reactive dye fixing agent, and a wool carbonization neutralizer.
  3. Ammonia is a colorless, transparent or slightly yellow liquid. It has an irritating odor and can make people cry. It should be stored in a sealed container. It will easily decompose to generate ammonia gas when heated. The volume expansion may easily burst the container. Be careful not to expose the ammonia container to heat or direct sunlight.It is used as a builder and neutralizer for acid complex dyes after dyeing.

4.oxidizing agent

  1. The molecular formula of hydrogen peroxide (hydrogen peroxide) is H2O2. It is an aqueous solution containing 30-40% for industrial use. It is a colorless or light yellow irritating liquid that easily decomposes into oxygen. If there is a small amount of acid in the solution, the solution is relatively stable. Therefore, if the manufacturer adds a small amount of acetic acid or phosphoric acid to the product, if ammonia or other alkalis are added to the solution, it will release oxygen quickly and have strong oxidizing ability. The concentrated solution can cause skin irritation. Therefore, store it in a cool, dark and ventilated place, avoid direct exposure to strong light, and use it as a bleaching agent.
  2. The molecular formula of sodium dichromate is Na2Cr7O7.2H2O. The content of sodium dichromate is about 98%. It is a bright orange-red crystal. It is the oxidizing agent that can release oxygen when exposed to high heat when exposed to acid. Red sail is toxic and easy to deliquesce. It should be stored in a sealed container and used as a mordant for acidic mordant dyes and an oxidant after dyeing with sulfur dyes.
  3. The molecular formula of potassium dichromate is K2Cr2O7. It is an orange-red crystal and an oxidizing agent. It is not easily deliquescent and toxic. It should be stored in a sealed container and used as a mordant for acidic mordant dyes.
  4. The molecular formula of potassium permanganate is KMnO4. It is a purple granular or needle-shaped crystal with metallic luster. It is a strong oxidant and should be stored in a closed container for anti-shrinkage treatment of wool.
  5. The molecular formula of sodium perborate is NaBO3.4H2O. The content of sodium perborate is 96%. It is white granular crystal or powder. It is stable in dry and cold air, decomposes into oxygen in hot and humid air, and easily agglomerates and decomposes when exposed to moisture. It should be stored in a sealed container and used as an oxidizing agent for viscose fibers dyed with sulfur dyes.
  6. The molecular formula of sodium hypochlorite is NaClO. It is an extremely unstable yellow solid and is soluble in water. The commercial product is generally an alkaline aqueous solution, which is colorless to slightly yellow, has a pungent odor, and is corrosive to metals. Used for bleaching cotton and wool products and wool anti-shrinkage finishing agent.

5.reducing agent

  1. The molecular formula of sodium sulfide is Na2S.9H2O. The content of sodium sulfide is 60%. It is yellow or orange-red lump with the smell of rotten eggs. It easily absorbs moisture, deliquesces and oxidizes into sodium thiosulfate in the air. It is highly alkaline when dissolved in water. It is corrosive to copper and is used as a solvent for oxidation dyes.
  2. The molecular formula of insurance powder is Na2S2O4. The content of industrial insurance powder is 85–95%. The product does not contain crystal water and is a white fine-grained crystal. Because the agglomerated insurance powder has a pungent sour smell, it should not be exposed to moisture, heat or exposure to the air to prevent it from being oxidized and rendered ineffective. Insurance powder should be stored in a sealed container to prevent moisture, heat, oxidation and deterioration. At the same time, it has strong reducing power and will burn with water. Used as a stripping agent for dyed fabrics and an agent for removing floating color after polyester dyeing.
  3. Bleaching powder is a mixture of 60% insurance powder and 40% sodium pyrophosphate. The white powder is stored in a sealed container to prevent heat, moisture, oxidation and deterioration. It can easily cause combustion or explosion when heated. Reducing agent with strong bleaching effect, used for bleaching wool, silk, etc.
  4. The molecular formula of NaHSO2.CH2O.2H2O is NaHSO2.CH2O.2H2O. The content of NaH2O is 98%. It is a white crystalline powder or block and is stored in a sealed container to prevent heat and moisture. It is a reducing agent used for shrink-proof treatment of wool, a reducing agent in discharge printing in the cotton printing and dyeing industry, and a stripping agent for dyed fabrics.
  5. The molecular formula of sodium bisulfite is NaHSO3. It is white crystal or crystalline powder. It has the odor of sulfur dioxide and is easily soluble in water. It is weakly alkaline in water solubility, easily deliquescent, and oxidizes into sulfate in the air. It should be stored in a sealed container and used as a chemical fixative for wool fabrics and a wool anti-shrinkage agent.
  6. The molecular formula of sodium sulfite is Na2SO3. When dissolved in water, sulfate is easily oxidized by air and loses water easily to become a white crystalline powder. Store in sealed containers and used as chemical fixative for wool fabrics and wool anti-shrinkage agent.

6.Salts

  1. The molecular formula of sodium chloride (table salt) is NaCl, which is white crystal and easy to deliquesce. It can be used as a dye accelerator for direct, vulcanized, reactive and reduced dyes, and as a regenerant for ion exchange in water softening.

2.The molecular formula of sodium acetate is CH3COONa.3H2O. Industrial sodium acetate containing three crystal waters contains about 60% sodium acetate. It is soluble in water and easily weathered in the air. Anhydrous sodium acetate is a white powder used as a neutralizing agent after dyeing with acid complex dyes. Cationic dyes used to dye acrylic are buffers that stabilize the pH value.

  1. The molecular formula of ammonium sulfate (fertilizer powder) is (NH4)2SO4, with small white or slightly yellow crystals. It is usually used as a dye accelerator for weak acid bath acid dyes, neutral bath acid dyes, neutral complex dyes, and a catalyst for urea-formaldehyde and cyanide-formaldehyde resins.
  2. The molecular formula of ammonium acetate is CH3COONH4. It is white crystal or crystalline block, easy to deliquesce, has a slight smell, and is easily soluble in water. The aqueous solution reacts acidically and decomposes into acetic acid and ammonia when heated. Acetic acid and ammonia solutions are usually prepared by oneself and used as dyeing auxiliaries for acid dyes in weak acid baths.
  3. The molecular formula of sodium metaphosphate is (NaPO3)6, which is colorless and transparent flakes or white granules. It is easy to deliquesce and will hydrate in the air. When hydrated, it turns into disodium phosphate and is used as a water softener.
  4. The molecular formula of ammonium chloride is NH4Cl, which is white and easy to deliquesce and crystallize. It decomposes into NH3 and HCl when heated and is used as a catalyst for resin finishing.
  5. The molecular formula of magnesium chloride is MgCl2.6H2O. It is a white monoclinic crystal that is easily deliquescent. It is soluble in water and used as a catalyst for resin finishing.
  6. The molecular formula of sodium pyrophosphate is Na4P4O7.10H2O. The monoclinic crystal is easily soluble in water. It turns into disodium hydrogen phosphate when boiling, and the aqueous solution is alkaline. Used as a stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide bleaching.
  7. The molecular formula of tartar (potassium tartrate) is K(SbO)C4H4O6.1/2H2O. The content of potassium tartrate is 98%. It is a colorless transparent crystal or white granular powder and is toxic. It is easy to weather in the air and is soluble in water. The aqueous solution is slightly acidic and should be stored in a sealed container to prevent it from clumping. Combined with tannic acid, it can be used as a fixing agent for weak acid bath acid dyes and neutral complex dyes for nylon dyeing.
  8. The molecular formula of sodium sulfate is Na2SO4. The commercial products include crystalline sodium sulfate with ten crystal waters (transparent crystals into blocks or needles) and sewage sodium sulfate (white powder). It is odorless, salty and bitter in taste, and soluble in water. It is used as a dye accelerator for direct dyes, thio dyes, reactive dyes and vat dyes, a retarder for acid dyes, and a synergist for synthetic detergents when washing wool.
  9. The molecular formula of copper sulfate is CuSO4.5H2O. The one containing 5 crystal water is dark blue crystal, and the one without crystal water is light blue powder. It is toxic, soluble in water, and used as a fixing agent after direct copper salt dye dyeing.
  10. detergent
  11. Mercerized soap is a mixture of C17H35COONa and C17H33COONa. It is an anionic surfactant and has good decontamination and emulsification effects. It is not resistant to hard water and the aqueous solution is easy to hydrolyze.
  12. The molecular formula of 601 detergent is CnH2n+1SO3Na, with an average number of carbon atoms of 16. It is an anionic surfactant, a light yellow-brown liquid, and is easily soluble in water. Containing approximately 25% sodium alkyl sulfonate (AS), 5% sodium chloride, and 70% water. The PH value of 1% aqueous solution is 7-9. It has strong detergency, acid resistance, alkali resistance, and hard water resistance.
  13. Industrial soap anionic surfactant is a beige powder and is easily soluble in water. Containing approximately 30% sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate (AAS), 68% sodium sulfate, 2% water, and a 1% aqueous solution with a pH value of 7-9. It has good cleaning, penetrating, emulsifying and other properties. It is acid-resistant, alkali-resistant, hard water-resistant, and has strong moisture absorption resistance. However, its ability to prevent dirt from adhering is poor and can be improved by using a small amount of carboxymethylcellulose.
  14. The detergent LS fatty acid amide sodium p-methoxybenzene sulfonate is an anionic surfactant brown powder, easily soluble in water, and a 1% aqueous solution is neutral. Whether washed in soft or hard water, its penetration and diffusion properties are good, and it has emulsification and leveling effects. At the same time, it is resistant to acid, alkali and hard water.
  15. 209 Detergent N, N-Sodium Fatty Acyl Methyl Taurate is an anionic surfactant. The solution is neutral, light yellow colloidal liquid, easily soluble in water. The PH value of 1% aqueous solution is 7.2-8, containing about 20% detergent active substances. It has good washing, leveling, penetrating and emulsifying abilities, and is resistant to acid, alkali and hard water.
  16. Detergent 105 (detergent R5) is a mixture of 24% polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether, 10-12% polyoxyethylene phenylalkyl phenol ether, 24% coconut oil alkyl alcoholamide and 40% water. It is a nonionic surfactant, light brown liquid, with 60% active ingredients. It is easily soluble in water. The pH value of 1% aqueous solution is about 9. It has the properties of wetting, penetrating, emulsifying, diffusing, foaming, and removing oil stains.
  17. Remibond A (613 detergent) is sodium fatty acid amino acid, fatty acid chloride and protein hydrolyzate. It is an anionic surfactant and is a viscous brown liquid with a general active ingredient of 40% and is easily soluble in water. The 1% aqueous solution has an amino acid smell with a pH value of about 8. Resistant to alkali, hard water, and not acid. It can be used as a detergent and emulsifier with poor oil removal ability. It can also be used as a leveling agent for direct dyes and sulfur dyes.
  18. The detergent JU ethylene oxide imidazole derivative is a non-ionic surfactant with good wetting, dispersing, emulsifying and other functions. It is suitable for washing at low temperature of 30-50 degrees. It is a light yellow viscous transparent liquid with a pH value of 1% aqueous solution of 5-6. It is resistant to hard water, alkali and acid. It has excellent washing and wetting capabilities, and has the functions of diffusion, emulsification and leveling. It can be mixed with various surfactants and dyes. It is often used for wool fabric cleaning and acrylic dyeing pre-treatment to make cationic dyes dye evenly.

 

  1. Penetrant

Penetrating agent BX (opening powder BX) sodium dibutylnaphthalene sulfonate is an anionic surfactant. It is a beige powder that is easily soluble in water. The PH value of 1% aqueous solution is 7-8.5. It has good wetting and permeability, good rewetability, and has the properties of emulsification, diffusion and foaming. It is resistant to acid, alkali and hard water (but is not suitable for concentrated alkali and bleaching powder solutions). Except for cationic dyes and cationic surfactants, which can generally be mixed, non-ionic leveling agents will combine with the draw-off powder in the dye bath to form a loose complex, which offsets or reduces the leveling performance. It is generally used as a leveling agent in different baths and will precipitate when exposed to iron, aluminum, zinc, lead and other metal salts.

  1. Penetrating agent T (fast penetrating agent T) sodium octyl succinate sulfonate is an anionic surfactant. It is a light yellow to brown viscous liquid that is soluble in water. The pH of 1% aqueous solution is 6.5-7. It penetrates quickly and evenly, and has good re-wetting, emulsifying and foaming properties. The effect is also achieved when the temperature is below 40 degrees, and the pH value is best between 5 and 10. It is not resistant to strong acids, strong alkali, metal salts and reducing agents, and is easily hydrolyzed in an alkali bath above 40 degrees.
  2. Penetrating agent EA, penetrating agent JFC, high-grade fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether are nonionic surfactants. It is a light yellow liquid that dissolves into a clear solution in water. Its solubility in cold water is greater than that in hot water. It has good penetrating, wetting and rewetting properties, and has emulsifying and washing effects. It is resistant to acid, alkali, hard water and metal salts. It can be mixed with various surfactants and is also suitable for mixing with synthetic resin primary shrinkage.

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Textile Auxiliaries:https://skygroupchem.com/products/textile-auxiliaries-products/

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Skywhite® Fluorescent Whitening Agent:https://skygroupchem.com/product/fluorescent-whitening-agent/

 

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