Introduction to 10 kinds of fabric finishing processes

After Finish is a technical treatment method that gives fabrics color effects, shape effects (smooth, suede, crisp, etc.) and practical effects (impermeable, non-felting, non-ironing, non-wormy, flame-resistant, etc.). Fabric finishing is The process of improving the appearance and feel of fabrics, enhancing wearing properties or giving special functions through chemical or physical methods is the “icing on the cake” of textiles.

After Finish methods can be divided into two categories: physical/mechanical finishing and chemical finishing.
According to the purpose of After Finish and the effects produced, it can be divided into basic finishing, appearance finishing and functional finishing.

Purpose of After Finish:
1. Make the textile width neat and uniform.
Such as setting (stretching) width, mechanical or chemical anti-shrinkage, anti-wrinkle and heat setting, etc.

2. Improving the appearance of textiles: including improving the gloss and whiteness of textiles, and enhancing or weakening the fluff on the surface of textiles. Such as whitening, calendering, electro-optical, subtext, sanding, shearing and shrinking, etc.

3. Improving the feel of textiles: Chemical or mechanical methods are mainly used to give textiles a comprehensive touch feeling such as softness, smoothness, plumpness, stiffness, thinness or thickness. Such as softness, stiffness, weight gain, etc.

4. Improve the durability of textiles: Chemical methods are mainly used to prevent damage or erosion of fibers by sunlight, atmosphere or microorganisms, and extend the service life of textiles. Such as moth-proofing, mildew-proof finishing, etc.

5. Giving textiles special properties: including giving textiles some protective properties or other special functions. Such as flame retardant, antibacterial, water repellent, oil repellent, UV protection and antistatic, etc.

The development of fabric finishing technology is toward product functionality, differentiation, and high-end products.
Pay attention to the diversification and in-depth development of processing technology, and emphasize improving the practical performance of products and increasing the added value of products.
In recent years, various new technologies (such as low-temperature plasma processing, bioengineering, ultrasonic technology, electron beam radiation processing, inkjet printing technology, microcapsule technology, nanotechnology, etc.) have been continuously introduced and borrowed from other technical fields to improve processing Depth to get a better After Finish product. As humans pay more and more attention to environmental pollution and damage, they pay more and more attention to health, and advocate a “low-carbon” economy. After Finish technology requires environmentally friendly “green” processing to produce “clean” and “low-carbon” textile products.

The basic finishing methods of fabrics include:
finishing methods to stabilize size and improve appearance,
finishing methods to improve hand feel and optimize performance, finishing methods to make fabrics multi-functional and high added value, finishing methods to make fabrics advanced,
and finishing methods to meet special requirements.

Various After finish processes are as follows:

1. Pre-shrinking
Pre-shrinking is a process that uses physical methods to reduce the shrinkage of fabrics after being soaked in water to reduce shrinkage. Mechanical preshrinking means that the fabric is first wetted by steam or spray, and then mechanically squeezed in the warp direction to increase the buckling wave height, and then dried by loosening.

2. Tentering
Tentering is a process that utilizes the plasticity of cellulose, silk, wool and other fibers under humid conditions to gradually widen the width of the fabric to a specified size and then dry it to stabilize the shape of the fabric. It is also called finishing.

3. Sizing
Sizing refers to the finishing process in which fabrics are dipped in slurry and dried to achieve a thick and stiff feel.

4. Heat setting
Heat setting is a process that makes the shape of thermoplastic fibers and blends or interweaves relatively stable. It is mainly used for the processing of synthetic fibers such as nylon or polyester and their blends that are prone to shrink and deform after being heated. Heat-set fabrics can improve dimensional stability and have a stiffer feel.

5. Whitening
Whitening is a process that uses the complementary color principle of light to increase the whiteness of textiles, also known as whitening. There are two whitening methods: bluing and fluorescent whitening.

6. Calendering, electropolishing and embossing
Calendering is a process that uses the plasticity of fibers under hot and humid conditions to flatten the surface of the fabric or create parallel fine twills to enhance the luster of the fabric. Flat calendering is a hard rolling point composed of a hard roller and a soft roller. After the fabric is rolled, the yarn is flattened, the surface is smooth, the gloss is enhanced, and the feel is stiff. Soft calendering is a soft calendering point composed of two soft rollers. After the fabric is calendered, the yarn is slightly flat, with a soft luster and a soft feel.
Electro-optical calendering uses electrically heated rollers to calender the fabric.

The rolling point consists of a steel roller engraved with a positive pattern and a soft roller. Under hot rolling conditions, the fabric can obtain a lustrous pattern.

7. Sanding
The process of using a sanding roller (or belt) to create a short and dense layer of velvet on the surface of the fabric is called sanding. Sanding finishing can make the warp and weft yarns produce fluff at the same time, and the fluff is also short and dense.

8. Raising
Raising is a process in which dense needles or thorns are used to pick up the fibers on the surface of the fabric to form a layer of fluff. It is also called brushing. Raising is mainly used for woolen fabrics, acrylic fabrics and cotton fabrics. The pile layer increases the warmth of the fabric, improves its appearance and makes it feel soft.

9. Shearing
Shearing is a process in which a shearing machine is used to remove unwanted hair on the surface of the fabric. Its purpose is to make the fabric texture clear and the surface smooth, or to make the pile or suede surface of raised or raised fabrics neat. Generally, products such as wool, velvet, artificial fur, and carpets require shearing.

10. Softening
Softening finishing is divided into two methods: mechanical finishing and chemical finishing. Mechanical softening finishing is achieved by rubbing and bending the fabric multiple times. The softening effect after finishing is not ideal. Chemical softening finishing is to apply softening agent to the fabric to reduce the friction coefficient between fibers and yarns, thereby obtaining a soft and smooth feel, and the finishing effect is significant.


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